Advancing excellence in laboratory medicine for better healthcare worldwide

Key Publications on Biochemical Monitoring

Disclaimer: This collection of resources on this webpage reflects a rapidly changing situation and due to the need for quick answers during the COVID-19 pandemic, we acknowledge that most fast-tracked publications are based on observations, often on a small number of cases, which would be considered as preliminary evidence. The IFCC Task Force has not critically appraised all resources cited here for scientific validity but tried to present information that is believed to help laboratory professionals in formulating their local policies in a more informed manner. The interim advice or conclusions presented here may change as more information is gathered.



  1. Henry BM, de Oliveira MH, Benoit S, Plebani M, Lippi G.Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Apr 10;1(ahead-of-print). PMID:32286245
  2. Lippi G, Plebani M. Laboratory abnormalities in patients with COVID-2019 infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Mar 3. PMID:32119647
  3. Lippi G, Plebani M. The critical role of laboratory medicine during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral outbreaks. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Mar 19. PMID:32191623
  4. Gao Y, Li T, Han M, Li X, Wu D, Xu Y, Zhu Y, Liu Y, Wang X, Wang L. Diagnostic Utility of Clinical Laboratory Data Determinations for Patients with the Severe COVID‐ Journal of Medical Virology. 2020 Mar 17. PMID: 32181911
  5. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Peña R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, Alvarado-Arnez LE, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Franco-Paredes C, Henao-Martinez AF, Paniz-Mondolfi A. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020 Mar 13:101623. PMID: 32179124
  6. Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Medicine. 2020 Mar 3:1-3. PMID:32125452
  7. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, Xiang J, Wang Y, Song B, Gu X, Guan L. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet. 2020 Mar 11. PMID:32171076
  8. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DS, Du B. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Feb 28. PMID: 32109013
  9. Kavsak PA, de Wit K, Worster A. Clinical chemistry tests for patients with COVID-19–important caveats for interpretation. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Apr 16;1(ahead-of-print). PMID: 32301748
  10. Liu Y, Yang Y, Zhang C, Huang F, Wang F, Yuan J, Wang Z, Li J, Li J, Feng C, Zhang Z. Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury. Science China Life Sciences. 2020 Mar;63(3):364-74. PMID:32048163
  11. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB.Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. 2020 Apr 13.PMID:32282022
  12. Ferrari D, Motta A, Strollo M, Banfi G, Locatelli M. Routine blood tests as a potential diagnostic tool for COVID-19. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Apr 16;1(ahead-of-print). PMID: 32301746
  13. Lippi G, South AM, Henry BM. ANNALS EXPRESS: Electrolyte Imbalances in Patients with Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19. Ann Clin Biochem. 2020 Apr 8 (ahead-of-print). PMID: 32266828
  14. Nichols JH, Rauch CA. A Laboratory Risk Assessment during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine. 2020 Apr 16. PMCID: PMC7184397
  15. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, Barnaby DP, Becker LB, Chelico JD, Cohen SL, Cookingham J. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. 2020 Apr 22. PMID: 32320003
  16. Kavsak PA, de Wit K, Worster A. Emerging key laboratory tests for patients with COVID-19. Clinical Biochemistry. 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32360478
  17. Lu G, Wang J. Dynamic changes in routine blood parameters of a severe COVID-19 case. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2020 May 13. PMID: 32405079
  18. Zhu L, She ZG, Cheng X, Qin JJ, Zhang XJ, Cai J, Lei F, Wang H, Xie J, Wang W, Li H, Zhang P, Song X, Chen X, Xiang M, Zhang C, Bai L, Xiang D, Chen MM, Liu Y, Yan Y, Liu M, Mao W, Zou J, Liu L, Chen G, Luo P, Xiao B, Zhang C, Zhang Z, Lu Z, Wang J, Lu H, Xia X, Wang D, Liao X, Peng G, Ye P, Yang J, Yuan Y, Huang X, Guo J, Zhang BH, Li H. Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metab. 2020 Jun 2;31(6):1068-1077.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.021. Epub 2020 May 1. PMID: 32369736
  19. Wang M, Zhang J, Ye D, et al. Time-dependent changes in the clinical characteristics and prognosis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 6]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:220-227. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.06.051
  20. Yang HS, Hou Y, Vasovic LV, et al. Routine laboratory blood tests predict SARS-CoV-2 infection using machine learning [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 21].Clin Chem. 2020;hvaa200. doi:10.1093/clinchem/hvaa200
  21. Panteghini M. Lactate dehydrogenase: an old enzyme reborn as a COVID-19 marker (and not only) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 24].Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020;/j/cclm.ahead-of-print/cclm-2020-1062/cclm-2020-1062.xml. doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1062
  22. Novelli A, Andreani M, Biancolella M, Liberatoscioli L, Passarelli C, Colona VL, Rogliani P, Leonardis F, Campana A, Carsetti R, Andreoni M, Bernardini S, Novelli G, Locatelli F. HLA allele frequencies and susceptibility to COVID-19 in a group of 99 Italian patients. 2020 Aug 22:10.1111/tan.14047. doi: 10.1111/tan.14047. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32827207; PMCID: PMC7461491.
  23. Latini A, Agolini E, Novelli A, Borgiani P, Giannini R, Gravina P, Smarrazzo A, Dauri M, Andreoni M, Rogliani P, Bernardini S, Helmer-Citterich M, Biancolella M, Novelli G. COVID-19 and Genetic Variants of Protein Involved in the SARS-CoV-2 Entry into the Host Cells. Genes (Basel). 2020 Aug 27;11(9):E1010. doi: 10.3390/genes11091010. PMID: 32867305.
  24. Moreno-Pérez O, Leon-Ramirez JM, Fuertes-Kenneally L, Perdiguero M, Andres M, Garcia-Navarro M, Ruiz-Torregrosa P, Boix V, Gil J, Merino E; COVID19-ALC research group. Hypokalemia as a sensitive biomarker of disease severity and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement in COVID-19 pneumonia: a case series of 306 Mediterranean patients. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17:S1201-9712(20)30749-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.033. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32950739.
  25. Liu J, Liu Z, Jiang W, Wang J, Zhu M, Song J, Wang X, Su Y, Xiang G, Ye M, Li J, Zhang Y, Shen Q, Li Z, Yao D, Song Y, Yu K, Luo Z, Ye L. Clinical Predictors of COVID-19 Disease Progression and Death: Analysis of 214 Hospitalized Patients from Wuhan, China. Clin Respir J. 2020 Oct 22. doi: 10.1111/crj.13296. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33090710.
  26. Zeng HL, Lu QB, Yang Q, Wang X, Yue DY, Zhang LK, Li H, Liu W, Li HJ. Longitudinal Profile of Laboratory Parameters and Their Application in the Prediction for Fatal Outcome Among Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 13:ciaa574. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa574. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33048116.
  27. Stegeman I, Ochodo EA, Guleid F, Holtman GA, Yang B, Davenport C, Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, Dittrich S, Emperador D, Hooft L, Spijker R, Takwoingi Y, Van den Bruel A, Wang J, Langendam M, Verbakel JY, Leeflang MM; Cochrane COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Accuracy Group. Routine laboratory testing to determine if a patient has COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 19;11:CD013787. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013787. PMID: 33211319.
  28. Kiss S, Gede N, Hegyi P, Németh D, Földi M, Dembrovszky F, Nagy B, Juhász MF, Ocskay K, Zádori N, Molnár Z, Párniczky A, Hegyi PJ, Szakács Z, Pár G, Erőss B, Alizadeh H. Early changes in laboratory parameters are predictors of mortality and ICU admission in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2020 Nov 21. doi: 10.1007/s00430-020-00696-w. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33219397.
  29. Mishra T, Wang M, Metwally AA, Bogu GK, Brooks AW, Bahmani A, Alavi A, Celli A, Higgs E, Dagan-Rosenfeld O, Fay B, Kirkpatrick S, Kellogg R, Gibson M, Wang T, Hunting EM, Mamic P, Ganz AB, Rolnik B, Li X, Snyder MP. Pre-symptomatic detection of COVID-19 from smartwatch data. Nat Biomed Eng. 2020 Nov 18. doi: 10.1038/s41551-020-00640-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33208926.


Inflammatory Markers:

  1. Lippi G, Plebani M. Procalcitonin in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2020 Mar 4. PMID:32145275
  2. Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. The Lancet. 2020 Mar 16. PMID:32192578
  3. Monteleone G, Sarzi-Puttini PC, Ardizzone S. Preventing COVID-19-induced pneumonia with anticytokine therapy. The Lancet Rheumatology. 2020 Apr 6. PMID: TBD
  4. McGonagle D, Sharif K, O'Regan A, Bridgewood C. Interleukin-6 use in COVID-19 pneumonia related macrophage activation syndrome. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2020 Apr 3:102537. PMID: 32251717
  5. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y, Zhao Y.Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama. 2020 Mar 17;323(11):1061-9. PMID: 32031570
  6. Chen X, Zhao B, Qu Y, Chen Y, Xiong J, Feng Y, Men D, Huang Q, Liu Y, Yang B, Ding J. Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020 Apr 17. PMID: 32301997
  7. Zhao Y, Qin L, Zhang P, Li K, Liang L, Sun J, Xu B, Dai Y, Li X, Zhang C, Peng Y. Longitudinal Profiling of Cytokines and Chemokines in COVID-19 Reveals Inhibitory Mediators IL-1Ra and IL-10 Are Associated with Disease Severity While Elevated RANTES Is an Early Predictor of Mild Disease. Non-peer reviewed preprint.
  8. Liu F, Li L, Xu M, Wu J, Luo D, Zhu Y, Li B, Song X, Zhou X. Prognostic value of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2020 Apr 14:104370. PMID: 32344321
  9. Aziz M, Fatima R, Assaly R. Elevated Interleukin‐6 and Severe COVID‐19: A Meta‐ Journal of Medical Virology. 2020 Apr 28. PMID: 32343429
  10. Lapić I, Rogić D, Plebani M. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pooled analysis. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. 2020 May 9. PMID: 32386190
  11. Del Valle et al. An inflammatory cytokine signature helps predict COVID-19 severity and death.
  12. Ognibene A, Lorubbio M, Magliocca P, Tripodo E, Vaggelli G, Iannelli G, Feri M, Scala R, Tartaglia AP, Galano A, Pancrazzi A. ELEVATED MONOCYTE DISTRIBUTION WIDTH IN COVID-19 PATIENTS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NOVEL SEPSIS INDICATOR. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2020 Jun 3. PMID: 32504637
  13. Chi Y, Ge Y, Wu B, Zhang W, Wu T, Wen T, Liu J, Guo X, Huang C, Jiao Y, Zhu F, Zhu B, Cui L. Serum Cytokine and Chemokine profile in Relation to the Severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 21:jiaa363. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa363. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32563194.
  14. Spectrum of innate and adaptive immune response to SARS CoV 2 infection across asymptomatic, mild and severe cases; a longitudinal cohort study.
  15. Long QX, Tang XJ, Shi QL, Li Q, Deng HJ, Yuan J, Hu JL, Xu W, Zhang Y, Lv FJ, Su K. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Medicine. 2020 Jun 18:1-5.
  16. Pfaar O, Torres MJ, Akdis CA. COVID-19: A series of important recent clinical and laboratory reports in immunology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and care of allergy patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 26]. Allergy. 2020;10.1111/all.14472. doi:10.1111/all.14472
  17. Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sehgal K, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 10]. Nat Med. 2020;10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3
  18. Rocio LG, Alberto UR, Paloma T, et al. Interleukin-6-based mortality risk model for hospitalised COVID-19 patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 22]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;S0091-6749(20)31027-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.07.009
  19. Zhang D, Zhou X, Yan S, et al. Correlation between cytokines and coagulation-related parameters in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to ICU [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 6]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:47-53. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.07.002
  20. Hu D, Li L, Shi W, Zhang L. Less expression of CD4+and CD8+ T cells might reflect the severity of infection and predict worse prognosis in patients with COVID-19: Evidence from a pooled analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 27]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:1-4. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.06.040
  21. Del Valle DM, Kim-Schulze S, Huang HH, et al. An inflammatory cytokine signature predicts COVID-19 severity and survival [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 24].Nat Med. 2020;10.1038/s41591-020-1051-9. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-1051-9
  22. Buszko M, Park JH, Verthelyi D, Sen R, Young HA, Rosenberg AS. The dynamic changes in cytokine responses in COVID-19: a snapshot of the current state of knowledge [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 27].Nat Immunol. 2020;10.1038/s41590-020-0779-1. doi:1038/s41590-020-0779-1
  23. Zeng Z, Yu H, Chen H, et al. Longitudinal changes of inflammatory parameters and their correlation with disease severity and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 from Wuhan, China.Crit Care. 2020;24(1):525. Published 2020 Aug 27. doi:1186/s13054-020-03255-0
  24. Ueland T, Heggelund L, Lind A, Holten AR, Tonby K, Michelsen AE, Jenum S, Jørgensen MJ, Barratt-Due A, Skeie LG, Nordøy I, Aanensen Fraz MS, Quist-Paulsen E E, Pischke SE, Johal SK, Hesstvedt L, Bogen M, Fevang B, Halvorsen B, Müller F, Bekken GK, Mollnes TE, Dudman S, Aukrust P, Dyrhol-Riise AM, Holter JC. Elevated plasma sTIM-3 levels in severe Covid-19 patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Sep 21:S0091-6749(20)31314-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32971109.
  25. Satış H, Özger HS, Aysert Yıldız P, Hızel K, Gulbahar Ö, Erbaş G, Aygencel G, Guzel Tunccan O, Öztürk MA, Dizbay M, Tufan A. Prognostic value of interleukin-18 and its association with other inflammatory markers and disease severity in COVID-19. Cytokine. 2020 Sep 28;137:155302. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155302. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33002740; PMCID: PMC7522034.
  26. Tang Y, Li Y, Sun J, Pan H, Yao F, Jiao X. Selection of an Optimal Combination Panel to Better Triage COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients. J Inflamm Res. 2020 Oct 27;13:773-787. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S273193. PMID: 33149652; PMCID: PMC7602889.
  27. Fomina DS, Lysenko MA, Beloglazova IP, Mutovina ZY, Poteshkina NG, Samsonova IV, Kruglova TS, Chernov AA, Karaulov AV. Temporal Clinical and Laboratory Response to Interleukin-6 Receptor Blockade With Tocilizumab in 89 Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia. Pathog Immun. 2020 Oct 2;5(1):327-341. doi: 10.20411/pai.v5i1.392. PMID: 33089038; PMCID: PMC7556411.
  28. Hariharan A, Hakeem AR, Radhakrishnan S, Reddy MS, Rela M. The Role and Therapeutic Potential of NF-kappa-B Pathway in Severe COVID-19 Patients. Inflammopharmacology. 2020 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s10787-020-00773-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33159646.
  29. Vashistha P, Gupta A, Arya M, Kumar Singh V, Dubey A, Chandra Koner B. Biclonal gammopathay in a case of severe COVID-19. Clin Chim Acta. 2020 Nov 4:S0009-8981(20)30523-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.10.040. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33159954.
  30. Angioni R, Sánchez-Rodríguez R, Munari F, Bertoldi N, Arcidiacono D, Cavinato S, Marturano D, Zaramella A, Realdon S, Cattelan A, Viola A, Molon B. Age-severity matched cytokine profiling reveals specific signatures in Covid-19 patients. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Nov 6;11(11):957. doi: 10.1038/s41419-020-03151-z. PMID: 33159040.
  31. Ji P, Zhu J, Zhong Z, Li H, Pang J, Li B, Zhang J. Association of elevated inflammatory markers and severe COVID-19: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Nov 20;99(47):e23315. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000023315. PMID: 33217868; PMCID: PMC7676531.
  32. Druyan A, Lidar M, Brodavka M, Levy I, Barzilai A, Pavlotsky F. The risk for severe COVID 19 in patients with autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases: First wave lessons. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Dec 5. doi: 10.1111/dth.14627. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33277764.
  33. Bülow Anderberg S, Luther T, Berglund M, Larsson R, Rubertsson S, Lipcsey M, Larsson A, Frithiof R, Hultström M. Increased levels of plasma cytokines and correlations to organ failure and 30-day mortality in critically ill Covid-19 patients. Cytokine. 2020 Dec 14;138:155389. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155389. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33348065.
  34. Salama C, Han J, Yau L, Reiss WG, Kramer B, Neidhart JD, Criner GJ, Kaplan-Lewis E, Baden R, Pandit L, Cameron ML, Garcia-Diaz J, Chávez V, Mekebeb-Reuter M, Lima de Menezes F, Shah R, González-Lara MF, Assman B, Freedman J, Mohan SV. Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 7;384(1):20-30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2030340. Epub 2020 Dec 17. PMID: 33332779; PMCID: PMC7781101.
  35. Lorenz G, Moog P, Bachmann Q, La Rosée P, Schneider H, Schlegl M, Spinner C, Heemann U, Schmid RM, Algül H, Lahmer T, Huber W, Schmaderer C. Title: Cytokine release syndrome is not usually caused by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a cohort of 19 critically ill COVID-19 patients. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 26;10(1):18277. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75260-w. PMID: 33106497; PMCID: PMC7589537.
  36. Chen LYC, Hoiland RL, Stukas S, Wellington CL, Sekhon MS. Confronting the controversy: interleukin-6 and the COVID-19 cytokine storm syndrome. Eur Respir J. 2020 Oct 1;56(4):2003006. doi: 10.1183/13993003.03006-2020. PMID: 32883678; PMCID: PMC7474149.
  37. Chen LYC, Hoiland RL, Stukas S, Wellington CL, Sekhon MS. Assessing the importance of interleukin-6 in COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Jan 15:S2213-2600(20)30600-7. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30600-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33460569; PMCID: PMC7836242.


Cardiac Markers:

  1. Lippi G, Lavie CJ, Sanchis-Gomar F. Cardiac troponin I in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evidence from a meta-analysis. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2020 Mar 10. PMID:32169400
  2. Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T, Wang H, Wan J, Wang X, Lu Z. Cardiovascular implications of fatal outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA cardiology. 2020 Mar 27. PMID: 32219356
  3. Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2020 Mar 5:1-2. PMID:32139904
  4. American College of Cardiology. Troponin and BNP Use in COVID-19. 28 Mar 2020.
  5. Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, Gong W, Liu X, Liang J, Zhao Q, Huang H. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA cardiology. 2020 Mar 25. PMID: 32211816
  6. Chapman AR, Bularga A, Mills NL. High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Can Be An Ally in the Fight Against COVID-19. Circulation. 2020 Apr 6. PMID: 32251612
  7. Shi S, Qin M, Cai Y, Liu T, Shen B, Yang F, Cao S, Liu X, Xiang Y, Zhao Q, Huang H. Characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019. European Heart Journal. 2020 May 11. PMID: 32391877
  8. Connors JM, Levy JH. COVID-19 and its implications for thrombosis and anticoagulation. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology. 2020 Jun 4;135(23):2033-40. PMID: 32339221
  9. Harmouch F, Shah K, Hippen J, Kumar A, Goel H. Is it all in the heart? Myocardial injury as major predictor of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 25]. J Med Virol. 2020;10.1002/jmv.26347. doi:10.1002/jmv.26347
  10. Deng P, Ke Z, Ying B, Qiao B, Yuan L. The diagnostic and prognostic role of myocardial injury biomarkers in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 16]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:186-190. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.07.018
  11. Qin JJ, Cheng X, Zhou F, et al. Redefining cardiac biomarkers in predicting mortality of inpatients with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 14]. Hypertension. 2020;10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15528. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15528
  12. Hafiane A. SARS-CoV-2 and the cardiovascular system [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 16]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:311-316. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.07.019
  13. Deng P, Ke Z, Ying B, Qiao B, Yuan L. The diagnostic and prognostic role of myocardial injury biomarkers in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 16]. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:186-190. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.07.018
  14. Sawalha K, Abozenah M, Kadado AJ, et al. Systematic review of COVID-19 related myocarditis: Insights on management and outcome [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18].Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2020;S1553-8389(20)30497-8. doi:10.1016/j.carrev.2020.08.028
  15. Lombardi CM, Carubelli V, Iorio A, et al. Association of Troponin Levels With Mortality in Italian Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Results of a Multicenter Study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 26].JAMA Cardiol. 2020;10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3538. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3538
  16. Liu D, Yang Q, Chen W, et al. Troponin I, a risk factor indicating more severe pneumonia among patients with novel coronavirus infected pneumonia.Clin Infect Pract. 2020;7:100037. doi:10.1016/j.clinpr.2020.100037
  17. Raad M, Dabbagh M, Gorgis S, et al. Cardiac Injury Patterns and Inpatient Outcomes Among Patients Admitted With COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 24].Am J Cardiol. 2020;S0002-9149(20)30774-8. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.07.040
  18. Stefanini GG, Chiarito M, Ferrante G, et al. Early detection of elevated cardiac biomarkers to optimise risk stratification in patients with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 14].Heart. 2020;heartjnl-2020-317322. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317322
  19. Shah P, Doshi R, Chenna A, et al. Prognostic Value of Elevated Cardiac Troponin I in Hospitalized Covid-19 Patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 27]. Am J Cardiol. 2020;S0002-9149(20)30898-5. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.08.041
  20. Aladağ N, Atabey RD. The role of concomitant cardiovascular diseases and cardiac biomarkers for predicting mortality in critical COVID-19 patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 4]. Acta Cardiol. 2020;1-8. doi:10.1080/00015385.2020.1810914
  21. Wu AHB, Zhang Y, Webber R. Extracellular vesicles released in blood of COVID-19 patients: mechanism for detection of cardiac troponin after myocardial injury? Biomarkers. 2020 Sep 25:1-10. doi: 10.1080/1354750X.2020.1829055. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32977728.
  22. Bojkova D, Wagner JUG, Shumliakivska M, Aslan GS, Saleem U, Hansen A, Luxán G, Günther S, Pham MD, Krishnan J, Harter PN, Ermel UH, Frangakis AS, Milting H, Zeiher AM, Klingel K, Cinatl J, Dendorfer A, Eschenhagen T, Tschöpe C, Ciesek S, Dimmeler S. SARS-CoV-2 infects and induces cytotoxic effects in human cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2020 Sep 23:cvaa267. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa267. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32966582.
  23. Zhou W, Song L, Wang X, Xu Z, Wang S, Wang J, Xu H, Zheng Y, Wang Y. Cardiac injury prediction and lymphocyte immunity and inflammation analysis in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Int J Cardiol. 2020 Oct 21:S0167-5273(20)34002-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.10.049. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33098952.
  24. Severino P, D'Amato A, Saglietto A, D'Ascenzo F, Marini C, Schiavone M, Ghionzoli N, Pirrotta F, Troiano F, Cannillo M, Mennuni M, Rognoni A, Rametta F, Galluzzo A, Agnes G, Infusino F, Pucci M, Lavalle C, Cacciotti L, Mather PJ, Grosso Marra W, Ugo F, Forleo G, Viecca M, Morici N, Patti G, De Ferrari GM, Palazzuoli A, Mancone M, Fedele F. Reduction in heart failure hospitalization rate during coronavirus disease 19 pandemic outbreak. ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Oct 23. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.13043. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33094929.
  25. Baldi E, Sechi GM, Mare C, Canevari F, Brancaglione A, Primi R, Palo A, Contri E, Ronchi V, Beretta G, Reali F, Parogni PP, Facchin F, Rizzi U, Bussi D, Ruggeri S, Oltrona Visconti L, Savastano S; all the Lombardia CARe researchers. Treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the COVID-19 era: A 100 days experience from the Lombardy region. PLoS One. 2020 Oct 22;15(10):e0241028. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241028. PMID: 33091034.
  26. Piccioni A, Brigida M, Loria V, Zanza C, Longhitano Y, Zaccaria R, Racco S, Gasbarrini A, Ojetti V, Franceschi F, Candelli M. Role of troponin in COVID-19 pandemic: a review of literature. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Oct;24(19):10293-10300. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202010_23254. PMID: 33090441.
  27. Kavsak PA, Mondoux SE, de Wit K, Rochwerg B, Main C, Yamamura D, Paré G, Ma J, Perri D, Sherbino J, Worster A. Admission high-sensitivity cardiac troponin versus a biochemical score for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19. CJC Open. 2020 Oct 14. doi: 10.1016/j.cjco.2020.10.008. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33073223; PMCID: PMC7553859.
  28. Kavsak PA, Hammarsten O, Worster A, Smith SW, Apple FS. Cardiac Troponin Testing in Patients with COVID-19: A Strategy for Testing and Reporting Results. Clin Chem. 2020 Oct 12:hvaa225. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/hvaa225. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33045044.
  29. Giustino G, Croft LB, Stefanini GG, Bragato R, Silbiger JJ, Vicenzi M, Danilov T, Kukar N, Shaban N, Kini A, Camaj A, Bienstock SW, Rashed ER, Rahman K, Oates CP, Buckley S, Elbaum LS, Arkonac D, Fiter R, Singh R, Li E, Razuk V, Robinson SE, Miller M, Bier B, Donghi V, Pisaniello M, Mantovani R, Pinto G, Rota I, Baggio S, Chiarito M, Fazzari F, Cusmano I, Curzi M, Ro R, Malick W, Kamran M, Kohli-Seth R, Bassily-Marcus AM, Neibart E, Serrao G, Perk G, Mancini D, Reddy VY, Pinney SP, Dangas G, Blasi F, Sharma SK, Mehran R, Condorelli G, Stone GW, Fuster V, Lerakis S, Goldman ME. Characterization of Myocardial Injury in Patients With COVID-19. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Nov 3;76(18):2043-2055. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.08.069. PMID: 33121710; PMCID: PMC7588179.
  30. Manocha KK, Kirzner J, Ying X, Yeo I, Peltzer B, Ang B, Li HA, Lerman BB, Safford MM, Goyal P, Cheung JW. Troponin and Other Biomarker Levels and Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: Derivation and Validation of the HA2T2COVID-19 Mortality Risk Score. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Oct 30:e018477. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.018477. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33121304.
  31. Gregory AT, Pepe S, Denniss AR. COVID-19 and Heart, Lung and Circulation: Riding the 2020 Waves of Change in Australia & New Zealand. Heart Lung Circ. 2020 Dec;29(12):1737-1740. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2020.10.008. PMID: 33218388.
  32. Mustroph J, Hupf J, Hanses F, Evert K, Baier MJ, Evert M, Meindl C, Wagner S, Hubauer U, Pietrzyk G, Leininger S, Staudner S, Vogel M, Wallner S, Zimmermann M, Sossalla S, Maier LS, Jungbauer C. Decreased GLUT1/NHE1 RNA expression in whole blood predicts disease severity in patients with COVID-19. ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Nov 20. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.13063. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33215884.
  33. Butt JH, Gerds TA, Schou M, Kragholm K, Phelps M, Havers-Borgersen E, Yafasova A, Gislason GH, Torp-Pedersen C, Køber L, Fosbøl EL. Association between statin use and outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a nationwide cohort study. BMJ Open. 2020 Dec 4;10(12):e044421. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044421. PMID: 33277291.
  34. Agarwal MA, Ziaeian B, Lavie CJ, Fonarow GC. Cardiovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients With a Diagnosis of Coronavirus From the Pre-COVID-19 Era in United States: National Analysis From 2016-2017. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Dec;95(12):2674-2683. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.09.022. Epub 2020 Sep 22. PMID: 33276839.
  35. Case BC, Yerasi C, Forrestal BJ, Shea C, Rappaport H, Medranda GA, Zhang C, Satler LF, Ben-Dor I, Hashim H, Rogers T, Waksman R. Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction with versus without Coronarvirus-19. Am J Cardiol. 2020 Dec 29:S0002-9149(20)31410-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.12.059. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33385357; PMCID: PMC7771301.
  36. Liu Z, Li J, Li M, Chen S, Gao R, Zeng G, Chen D, Wang S, Li Q, Hu D, Zeng W, Guo L, Wu X. Elevated α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase as an independent prognostic factor for mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Dec 17. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.13151. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33336560.
  37. Ranasinghe RNK, Taylor DR, Mazaheri T, Al-Hasani W, Buchanan D, Rao N, Vincent RP. Cardiac markers in Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) patients with COVID-19. J Clin Pathol. 2020 Dec 10:jclinpath-2020-207188. doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2020-207188. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33303528.
  38. Page EM, Ariëns RAS. Mechanisms of thrombosis and cardiovascular complications in COVID-19. Thromb Res. 2021 Jan 18;200:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2021.01.005. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33493983; PMCID: PMC7813504.
  39. Shi X, Chen M, Zhang Y. The cardiovascular disorders and prognostic cardiac biomarkers in COVID-19. Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Jan 22:1–9. doi: 10.1007/s11033-021-06148-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33483864; PMCID: PMC7822398.
  40. Belarte-Tornero LC, Valdivielso-Moré S, Vicente Elcano M, Solé-González E, Ruíz-Bustillo S, Calvo-Fernández A, Subinara I, Cabero P, Soler C, Cubero-Gallego H, Vaquerizo B, Farré N. Prognostic Implications of Chronic Heart Failure and Utility of NT-proBNP Levels in Heart Failure Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. J Clin Med. 2021 Jan 17;10(2):323. doi: 10.3390/jcm10020323. PMID: 33477268; PMCID: PMC7829899.


Hematology Markers:

  1. Fan BE, Chong VC, Chan SS, Lim GH, Lim KG, Tan GB, Mucheli SS, Kuperan P, Ong KH. Hematologic parameters in patients with COVID-19 infection. American journal of hematology. 2020 Mar 4. PMID:32129508
  2. Lippi G, Plebani M, Henry BM. Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2020 Mar 13. PMID:32178975
  3. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2020 Jan 1. PMID:32073213
  4. Han H, Yang L, Liu R, Liu F, Wu KL, Li J, Liu XH, Zhu CL. Prominent changes in blood coagulation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020 Mar 16;1(ahead-of-print). PMID: 32172226
  5. Zhang Y, Xiao M, Zhang S, Xia P, Cao W, Jiang W, Chen H, Ding X, Zhao H, Zhang H, Wang C. Coagulopathy and antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Apr 8. PMID: 32268022
  6. Salamanna F, Maglio M, Landini MP, Fini M. Platelet functions and activities as potential hematologic parameters related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). Platelets. 2020 May 12:1-6. PMID: 32397915
  7. Levi M, Thachil J, Iba T, Levy JH. Coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis in patients with COVID-19. The Lancet Haematology. 2020 May 11. PMID: 32407672
  8. Al-Samkari H, Karp Leaf RS, Dzik WH, Carlson JC, Fogerty AE, Waheed A, Goodarzi K, Bendapudi P, Bornikova L, Gupta S, Leaf D, Kuter DJ, Rosovsky RP. COVID and Coagulation: Bleeding and Thrombotic Manifestations of SARS-CoV2 Infection. Blood. 2020 Jun 3:blood.2020006520. doi: 10.1182/blood.2020006520. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32492712.
  9. Dewaele K, Claeys R. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood. 2020 Jun 18;135(25):2323. doi: 10.1182/blood.2020006505. PMID: 32556137.
  10. Mezalek ZT, Khibri H, Ammouri W, et al. COVID-19 Associated Coagulopathy and Thrombotic Complications. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2020;26:1076029620948137. doi:10.1177/1076029620948137
  11. Hardy M, Douxfils J, Bareille M, et al. Studies on hemostasis in COVID-19 deserve careful reporting of the laboratory methods, their significance and their limitations [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 13]. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;10.1111/jth.15061. doi:10.1111/jth.15061
  12. Nicolai L, Leunig A, Brambs S, et al. Immunothrombotic Dysregulation in COVID-19 Pneumonia is Associated with Respiratory Failure and Coagulopathy [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 28]. Circulation. 2020;10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048488. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048488
  13. Elshazli RM, Toraih EA, Elgaml A, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of hematological and immunological markers in COVID-19 infection: A meta-analysis of 6320 patients.PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0238160. Published 2020 Aug 21. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238160
  14. Zhang S, Liu Y, Wang X, et al. SARS-CoV-2 binds platelet ACE2 to enhance thrombosis in COVID-19. J Hematol Oncol. 2020;13(1):120. Published 2020 Sep 4. doi:10.1186/s13045-020-00954-7
  15. Christensen B, Favaloro EJ, Lippi G, Van Cott EM. Hematology Laboratory Abnormalities in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 2]. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2020;10.1055/s-0040-1715458. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1715458
  16. Kasal DA, De Lorenzo A, Tibiriçá E. COVID-19 and Microvascular Disease: Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 Infection With Focus on the Renin-Angiotensin System. Heart Lung Circ. 2020 Sep 2:S1443-9506(20)30443-1. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2020.08.010. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32972810.
  17. Ferrari E, Sartre B, Squara F, Contenti J, Occelli C, Lemoel F, Levraut J, Doyen D, Dellamonica J, Mondain V, Chirio D, Risso K, Cua E, Orban JC, Ichai C, Labbaoui M, Mossaz B, Moceri P, Appert-Flory A, Fischer F, Toulon P. High prevalence of acquired thrombophilia without prognosis value in Covid-19 patients. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Sep 25:e017773. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017773. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32972320.
  18. Schulman S, Hu Y, Konstantinides S. Venous Thromboembolism in COVID-19. Thromb Haemost. 2020 Oct 24. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1718532. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33099284.
  19. Fan BE, Ng J, Chan SSW, Christopher D, Tso ACY, Ling LM, Young BE, Wong LJL, Sum CLL, Tan HT, Ang MK, Lim GH, Ong KH, Kuperan P, Chia YW. COVID-19 associated coagulopathy in critically ill patients: A hypercoagulable state demonstrated by parameters of haemostasis and clot waveform analysis. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020 Oct 24. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02318-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33098540.
  20. Bourguignon A, Beaulieu C, Belkaid W, Desilets A, Blais N. Incidence of thrombotic outcomes for patients hospitalized and discharged after COVID-19 infection. Thromb Res. 2020 Oct 15;196:491-493. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.10.017. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33091702; PMCID: PMC7557256.
  21. Daughety MM, Morgan A, Frost E, Kao C, Hwang J, Tobin R, Patel B, Fuller M, Welsby I, Ortel TL. COVID-19 associated coagulopathy: Thrombosis, hemorrhage and mortality rates with an escalated-dose thromboprophylaxis strategy. Thromb Res. 2020 Oct 15;196:483-485. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.10.004. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33091700; PMCID: PMC7557260.
  22. Anurag A, Jha PK, Kumar A. Differential white blood cell count in the COVID-19: A cross-sectional study of 148 patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020 Nov 2;14(6):2099-2102. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.10.029. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33160224.
  23. Fan BE, Umapathi T, Chua K, Chia YW, Wong SW, Tan GWL, Chandrasekar S, Lum YH, Vasoo S, Dalan R. Delayed catastrophic thrombotic events in young and asymptomatic post COVID-19 patients. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02332-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33159640.
  24. Mui LW, Lau JF, Lee HK. Thromboembolic complications of COVID-19. Emerg Radiol. 2020 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s10140-020-01868-0. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33159219.
  25. Fan BE, Umapathi T, Chua K, Chia YW, Wong SW, Tan GWL, Chandrasekar S, Lum YH, Vasoo S, Dalan R. Delayed catastrophic thrombotic events in young and asymptomatic post COVID-19 patients. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020 Nov 7:1–7. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02332-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33159640; PMCID: PMC7648538.
  26. Tsantes AE, Frantzeskaki F, Tsantes AG, Rapti E, Rizos M, Kokoris SI, Paramythiotou E, Katsadiotis G, Karali V, Flevari A, Chrysanthopoulou E, Maratou E, Kyriakou E, Gialeraki A, Bonovas S, Dimopoulos G, Tsangaris I, Armaganidis A. The haemostatic profile in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulant therapy: An observational study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Nov 20;99(47):e23365. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000023365. PMID: 33217881; PMCID: PMC7676559.
  27. Lv Y, Chen L, Liang X, Liu X, Gao M, Wang Q, Wei Q, Liu L. Association between iron status and the risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19. Clin Nutr. 2020 Dec 9:S0261-5614(20)30654-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.033. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33380357; PMCID: PMC7723754.
  28. van der Linden J, Almskog L, Liliequist A, Grip J, Fux T, Rysz S, Ågren A, Oldner A, Ståhlberg M. Thromboembolism, Hypercoagulopathy, and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients: A Before and After Study of Enhanced Anticoagulation. Crit Care Explor. 2020 Dec 17;2(12):e0308. doi: 10.1097/CCE.0000000000000308. PMID: 33364605; PMCID: PMC7752689.
  29. Trimaille A, Thachil J, Marchandot B, Curtiaud A, Leonard-Lorant I, Carmona A, Matsushita K, Sato C, Sattler L, Grunebaum L, Hansmann Y, Fafi-Kremer S, Jesel L, Ohana M, Morel O. D-Dimers Level as a Possible Marker of Extravascular Fibrinolysis in COVID-19 Patients. J Clin Med. 2020 Dec 24;10(1):E39. doi: 10.3390/jcm10010039. PMID: 33374487.
  30. Ruberto F, Chistolini A, Curreli M, Frati G, Marullo AGM, Biondi-Zoccai G, Mancone M, Sciarretta S, Miraldi F, Alessandri F, Ceccarelli G, Barone F, Santoro C, Alvaro D, Pugliese F, Pulcinelli FM; Policlinico Umberto I COVID-19 Group. Von Willebrand factor with increased binding capacity is associated with reduced platelet aggregation but enhanced agglutination in COVID-19 patients: another COVID-19 paradox? J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2021 Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02339-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33387210.
  31. Lanini S, Montaldo C, Nicastri E, Vairo F, Agrati C, Petrosillo N, Scognamiglio P, Antinori A, Puro V, Di Caro A, De Carli G, Navarra A, Agresta A, Cimaglia C, Palmieri F, D'Offizi G, Marchioni L, Kobinger GP, Maeurer M, Girardi E, Capobianchi MR, Zumla A, Locatelli F, Ippolito G. COVID-19 disease-Temporal analyses of complete blood count parameters over course of illness, and relationship to patient demographics and management outcomes in survivors and non-survivors: A longitudinal descriptive cohort study. PLoS One. 2020 Dec 28;15(12):e0244129. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244129. PMID: 33370366.
  32. Lombardi A, Trombetta E, Cattaneo A, Castelli V, Palomba E, Tirone M, Mangioni D, Lamorte G, Manunta M, Prati D, Ceriotti F, Gualtierotti R, Costantino G, Aliberti S, Scaravilli V, Grasselli G, Gori A, Porretti L, Bandera A. Early Phases of COVID-19 Are Characterized by a Reduction in Lymphocyte Populations and the Presence of Atypical Monocytes. Front Immunol. 2020 Dec 9;11:560330. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.560330. PMID: 33362757; PMCID: PMC7756112.
  33. Di Micco P, Russo V, Carannante N, Imparato M, Cardillo G, Lodigiani C. Prognostic Value of Fibrinogen among COVID-19 Patients Admitted to an Emergency Department: An Italian Cohort Study. J Clin Med. 2020 Dec 21;9(12):4134. doi: 10.3390/jcm9124134. PMID: 33371524; PMCID: PMC7767519.


Hepatic & Renal Markers:

  1. Bangash MN, Patel J, Parekh D. COVID-19 and the liver: little cause for concern. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2020 Mar 20. PMID: 32203680
  2. Cheng Y, Luo R, Wang K, Zhang M, Wang Z, Dong L, Li J, Yao Y, Ge S, Xu G. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. Kidney international. 2020 Mar 20. PMID: 32247631
  3. Fan Z, Chen L, Li J, Cheng X, Yang J, Tian C, Zhang Y, Huang S, Liu Z, Cheng J. Clinical features of COVID-19-related liver damage. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020 Apr 10. PMID: 32283325
  4. Lax SF, Skok K, Zechner P, Kessler HH, Kaufmann N, Koelblinger C, Vander K, Bargfrieder U, Trauner M. Pulmonary arterial thrombosis in COVID-19 with fatal outcome: results from a prospective, single-center, clinicopathologic case series. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020 May. PMID: 32422076
  5. Agarwal A, Chen A, Ravindran N, To C, Thuluvath PJ. Gastrointestinal and liver manifestations of COVID-19. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 2020 Apr 1. PMCID: PMC7212283
  6. Su H, Yang M, Wan C, Yi LX, Tang F, Zhu HY, Yi F, Yang HC, Fogo AB, Nie X, Zhang C. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney international. 2020 Apr 9. PMID: 32327202
  7. Portincasa P, Krawczyk M, Smyk W, Lammert F, Di Ciaula A. COVID-19 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: two intersecting pandemics [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 26]. Eur J Clin Invest. 2020;e13338. doi:10.1111/eci.13338
  8. Sun JK, Zhang WH, Zou L, et al. Serum calcium as a biomarker of clinical severity and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 25]. Aging (Albany NY). 2020;12:10.18632/aging.103526. doi:10.18632/aging.103526
  9. Bertolini A, van de Peppel IP, Bodewes FAJA, et al. Abnormal liver function tests in COVID-19 patients: relevance and potential pathogenesis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 23]. Hepatology. 2020;10.1002/hep.31480. doi:10.1002/hep.31480
  10. Zarifian A, Bidary MZ, Arekhi S, et al. Gastrointestinal and hepatic abnormalities in patients with confirmed COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 18]. J Med Virol. 2020;10.1002/jmv.26314. doi:10.1002/jmv.26314
  11. Saad Alharbi K, Al-Abbasi FA, Prasad Agrawal G, Sharma A, Kowti R, Kazmi I. Impact of COVID-19 on Nephrology Patients: A Mechanistic Outlook for Pathogenesis of Acute Kidney Injury [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 15]. Altern Ther Health Med2020;AT6544.
  12. Boregowda U, Aloysius MM, Perisetti A, Gajendran M, Bansal P, Goyal H. Serum Activity of Liver Enzymes Is Associated With Higher Mortality in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:431. Published 2020 Jul 22. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00431
  13. Scarpellini E, Fagoonee S, Rinninella E, et al. Gut Microbiota and Liver Interaction through Immune System Cross-Talk: A Comprehensive Review at the Time of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. J Clin Med. 2020;9(8):E2488. Published 2020 Aug 3. doi:10.3390/jcm9082488
  14. Ramachandran P, Perisetti A, Gajendran M, Chakraborti A, Narh JT, Goyal H. Increased Serum Aminotransferase Activity and Clinical Outcomes in Coronavirus Disease 2019 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 30].J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2020;10.1016/j.jceh.2020.06.009. doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2020.06.009
  15. El Ouali S, Romero-Marrero C, Regueiro M. Hepatic manifestations of COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 27].Cleve Clin J Med. 2020;10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc061. doi:10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc061
  16. Ghoshal UC, Ghoshal U, Dhiman RK. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 11].J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2020;10.1016/j.jceh.2020.06.002. doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2020.06.002
  17. Gao Y, Li Q, Shi H, et al. Preliminary Exploration of the Cause of Liver Disorders During Early Stages in COVID-19 Patients. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:501. Published 2020 Aug 7. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00501
  18. Bernal-Monterde V, Casas-Deza D, Letona-Giménez L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Induces a Dual Response in Liver Function Tests: Association with Mortality during Hospitalization. Biomedicines. 2020;8(9):E328. Published 2020 Sep 4. doi:10.3390/biomedicines8090328
  19. Kovalic AJ, Huang G, Thuluvath PJ, Satapathy SK. Reply to Letter to the Editor: Elevated Liver Biochemistries in Hospitalized Chinese Patients With Severe COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 7]. Hepatology. 2020;10.1002/hep.31542. doi:10.1002/hep.31542
  20. Tsibouris P, Ekmektzoglou K, Agorogianni A, et al. Gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective study from a Greek COVID-19 referral hospital. Ann Gastroenterol. 2020;33(5):465-472. doi:10.20524/aog.2020.0514
  21. Zhou YH, Zheng KI, Targher G, Byrne CD, Zheng MH. Abnormal liver enzymes in children and infants with COVID-19: A narrative review of case-series studies [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 1]. Pediatr Obes. 2020;e12723. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12723
  22. Mahamid M, Nseir W, Khoury T, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with COVID-19 severity independently of metabolic syndrome: a retrospective case-control study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 28]. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;10.1097/MEG.0000000000001902. doi:10.1097/MEG.0000000000001902
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