Advancing excellence in laboratory medicine for better healthcare worldwide

8. Vaccination: Considerations for the Clinical Laboratory

Disclaimer: This collection of resources on this webpage reflects a rapidly changing situation and due to the need for quick answers during the COVID-19 pandemic, we acknowledge that most fast-tracked publications are based on observations, often on a small number of cases, which would be considered as preliminary evidence. The IFCC Task Force has not critically appraised all resources cited here for scientific validity but tried to present information that is believed to help laboratory professionals in formulating their local policies in a more informed manner. The interim advice or conclusions presented here may change as more information is gathered.

 

Since the beginning of 2021, several SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations have been approved by key regulatory bodies and distributed globally. The clinical laboratory will likely play a role in the monitoring of immunity post-vaccination as testing practices and methodologies evolve and improve.  Please find a curated list of key publications regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the implications for laboratory testing.

 

See below list of Publications on Vaccination

  1. Hall VG, Ferreira VH, Ku T, Ierullo M, Majchrzak-Kita B, Chaparro C, Selzner N, Schiff J, McDonald M, Tomlinson G, Kulasingam V, Kumar D, Humar A. Randomized Trial of a Third Dose of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Transplant Recipients. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1244-1246. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2111462. Epub 2021 Aug 11. PMID: 34379917; PMCID: PMC8385563.
  2. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Follmann D, Neuzil KM, August A, Clouting H, Fortier G, Deng W, Han S, Zhao X, Leav B, Talarico C, Girard B, Paila YD, Tomassini JE, Schödel F, Pajon R, Zhou H, Das R, Miller J. Phase 3 Trial of mRNA-1273 during the Delta-Variant Surge. N Engl J Med. 2021 Nov 3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2115597. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34731553.
  3. Uriu K, Kimura I, Shirakawa K, Takaori-Kondo A, Nakada TA, Kaneda A, Nakagawa S, Sato K; Genotype to Phenotype Japan (G2P-Japan) Consortium. Neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 Mu Variant by Convalescent and Vaccine Serum. N Engl J Med. 2021 Nov 3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2114706. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34731554.
  4. Chemaitelly H, Tang P, Hasan MR, AlMukdad S, Yassine HM, Benslimane FM, Al Khatib HA, Coyle P, Ayoub HH, Al Kanaani Z, Al Kuwari E, Jeremijenko A, Kaleeckal AH, Latif AN, Shaik RM, Abdul Rahim HF, Nasrallah GK, Al Kuwari MG, Al Romaihi HE, Butt AA, Al-Thani MH, Al Khal A, Bertollini R, Abu-Raddad LJ. Waning of BNT162b2 Vaccine Protection against SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Qatar. N Engl J Med. 2021 Oct 6:NEJMoa2114114. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2114114. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34614327; PMCID: PMC8522799.
  5. Collier AY, Yu J, McMahan K, Liu J, Chandrashekar A, Maron JS, Atyeo C, Martinez DR, Ansel JL, Aguayo R, Rowe M, Jacob-Dolan C, Sellers D, Barrett J, Ahmad K, Anioke T, VanWyk H, Gardner S, Powers O, Bondzie EA, Wan H, Baric RS, Alter G, Hacker MR, Barouch DH. Differential Kinetics of Immune Responses Elicited by Covid-19 Vaccines. N Engl J Med. 2021 Oct 15:NEJMc2115596. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2115596. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34648703; PMCID: PMC8531985.
  6. Falsey AR, Frenck RW Jr, Walsh EE, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Xu X, Koury K, Kalina W, Cooper D, Zou J, Xie X, Xia H, Türeci Ö, Lagkadinou E, Tompkins KR, Shi PY, Jansen KU, Şahin U, Dormitzer PR, Gruber WC. SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization with BNT162b2 Vaccine Dose 3. N Engl J Med. 2021 Oct 21;385(17):1627-1629. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2113468. Epub 2021 Sep 15. PMID: 34525276; PMCID: PMC8461567.
  7. Hall VG, Ferreira VH, Ku T, Ierullo M, Majchrzak-Kita B, Chaparro C, Selzner N, Schiff J, McDonald M, Tomlinson G, Kulasingam V, Kumar D, Humar A. Randomized Trial of a Third Dose of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Transplant Recipients. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1244-1246. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2111462. Epub 2021 Aug 11. PMID: 34379917; PMCID: PMC8385563.
  8. Wallace M, Woodworth KR, Gargano JW, Scobie HM, Blain AE, Moulia D, Chamberland M, Reisman N, Hadler SC, MacNeil JR, Campos-Outcalt D, Morgan RL, Daley MF, Romero JR, Talbot HK, Lee GM, Bell BP, Oliver SE. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' Interim Recommendation for Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine in Adolescents Aged 12-15 Years - United States, May 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 21;70(20):749-752. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7020e1. PMID: 34014913; PMCID: PMC8136423.
  9. Embi PJ, Levy ME, Naleway AL, Patel P, Gaglani M, Natarajan K, Dascomb K, Ong TC, Klein NP, Liao IC, Grannis SJ, Han J, Stenehjem E, Dunne MM, Lewis N, Irving SA, Rao S, McEvoy C, Bozio CH, Murthy K, Dixon BE, Grisel N, Yang DH, Goddard K, Kharbanda AB, Reynolds S, Raiyani C, Fadel WF, Arndorfer J, Rowley EA, Fireman B, Ferdinands J, Valvi NR, Ball SW, Zerbo O, Griggs EP, Mitchell PK, Porter RM, Kiduko SA, Blanton L, Zhuang Y, Steffens A, Reese SE, Olson N, Williams J, Dickerson M, McMorrow M, Schrag SJ, Verani JR, Fry AM, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Barron MA, Thompson MG, DeSilva MB. Effectiveness of 2-Dose Vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults - Nine States, January-September 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Nov 5;70(44):1553-1559. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7044e3. PMID: 34735426.
  10. Mbaeyi S, Oliver SE, Collins JP, Godfrey M, Goswami ND, Hadler SC, Jones J, Moline H, Moulia D, Reddy S, Schmit K, Wallace M, Chamberland M, Campos-Outcalt D, Morgan RL, Bell BP, Brooks O, Kotton C, Talbot HK, Lee G, Daley MF, Dooling K. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' Interim Recommendations for Additional Primary and Booster Doses of COVID-19 Vaccines - United States, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Nov 5;70(44):1545-1552. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7044e2. PMID: 34735422.
  11. Bozio CH, Grannis SJ, Naleway AL, Ong TC, Butterfield KA, DeSilva MB, Natarajan K, Yang DH, Rao S, Klein NP, Irving SA, Dixon BE, Dascomb K, Liao IC, Reynolds S, McEvoy C, Han J, Reese SE, Lewis N, Fadel WF, Grisel N, Murthy K, Ferdinands J, Kharbanda AB, Mitchell PK, Goddard K, Embi PJ, Arndorfer J, Raiyani C, Patel P, Rowley EA, Fireman B, Valvi NR, Griggs EP, Levy ME, Zerbo O, Porter RM, Birch RJ, Blanton L, Ball SW, Steffens A, Olson N, Williams J, Dickerson M, McMorrow M, Schrag SJ, Verani JR, Fry AM, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Barron M, Gaglani M, Thompson MG, Stenehjem E. Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19-Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity - Nine States, January-September 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Nov 5;70(44):1539-1544. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7044e1. PMID: 34735425.
  12. Olson SM, Newhams MM, Halasa NB, Price AM, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Irby K, Walker TC, Schwartz SP, Pannaraj PS, Maddux AB, Bradford TT, Nofziger RA, Boutselis BJ, Cullimore ML, Mack EH, Schuster JE, Gertz SJ, Cvijanovich NZ, Kong M, Cameron MA, Staat MA, Levy ER, Chatani BM, Chiotos K, Zambrano LD, Campbell AP, Patel MM, Randolph AG; Overcoming COVID-19 Investigators. Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA Vaccination Against COVID-19 Hospitalization Among Persons Aged 12-18 Years - United States, June-September 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 22;70(42):1483-1488. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7042e1. PMID: 34673751.
  13. Eliakim-Raz N, Leibovici-Weisman Y, Stemmer A, Ness A, Awwad M, Ghantous N, Stemmer SM. Antibody Titers Before and After a Third Dose of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 Vaccine in Adults Aged ≥60 Years. JAMA. 2021 Nov 5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.19885. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34739043.
  14. Abu-Raddad LJ, Chemaitelly H, Ayoub HH, Yassine HM, Benslimane FM, Al Khatib HA, Tang P, Hasan MR, Coyle P, Al Kanaani Z, Al Kuwari E, Jeremijenko A, Kaleeckal AH, Latif AN, Shaik RM, Abdul Rahim HF, Nasrallah GK, Al Kuwari MG, Butt AA, Al Romaihi HE, Al-Thani MH, Al Khal A, Bertollini R. Association of Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection With Risk of Breakthrough Infection Following mRNA Vaccination in Qatar. JAMA. 2021 Nov 1. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.19623. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34724027.
  15. Zhong D, Xiao S, Debes AK, Egbert ER, Caturegli P, Colantuoni E, Milstone AM. Durability of Antibody Levels After Vaccination With mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Individuals With or Without Prior Infection. JAMA. 2021 Nov 1. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.19996. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34724529.
  16. Conti MG, Terreri S, Piano Mortari E, Albano C, Natale F, Boscarino G, Zacco G, Palomba P, Cascioli S, Corrente F, Capponi C, Mirabella M, Salinas AF, Marciano A, De Luca F, Pangallo I, Quaranta C, Alteri C, Russo C, Galoppi P, Brunelli R, Perno CF, Terrin G, Carsetti R. Immune Response of Neonates Born to Mothers Infected With SARS-CoV-2. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Nov 1;4(11):e2132563. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32563. PMID: 34730817.
  17. Klompas M. Understanding Breakthrough Infections Following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. JAMA. 2021 Nov 4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.19063. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34734985.
  18. Moss WJ, Gostin LO, Nuzzo JB. Pediatric COVID-19 Vaccines: What Parents, Practitioners, and Policy Makers Need to Know. JAMA. 2021 Nov 5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.20734. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34739041.
  19. Tenforde MW, Self WH, Adams K, Gaglani M, Ginde AA, McNeal T, Ghamande S, Douin DJ, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Mohr NM, Zepeski A, Shapiro NI, Gibbs KW, Files DC, Hager DN, Shehu A, Prekker ME, Erickson HL, Exline MC, Gong MN, Mohamed A, Henning DJ, Steingrub JS, Peltan ID, Brown SM, Martin ET, Monto AS, Khan A, Hough CL, Busse LW, Ten Lohuis CC, Duggal A, Wilson JG, Gordon AJ, Qadir N, Chang SY, Mallow C, Rivas C, Babcock HM, Kwon JH, Halasa N, Chappell JD, Lauring AS, Grijalva CG, Rice TW, Jones ID, Stubblefield WB, Baughman A, Womack KN, Rhoads JP, Lindsell CJ, Hart KW, Zhu Y, Olson SM, Kobayashi M, Verani JR, Patel MM; Influenza and Other Viruses in the Acutely Ill (IVY) Network. Association Between mRNA Vaccination and COVID-19 Hospitalization and Disease Severity. JAMA. 2021 Nov 4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.19499. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34734975.

Less recent publications on Vaccination

  1. El Sahly HM, Baden LR, Essink B, et al. Efficacy of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at Completion of Blinded Phase [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 22]. N Engl J Med. 2021;10.1056/NEJMoa2113017. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2113017
  2. Falsey AR, Frenck RW Jr, Walsh EE, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization with BNT162b2 Vaccine Dose 3 [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 15]. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMc2113468. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2113468
  3. Shah ASV, Gribben C, Bishop J, et al. Effect of Vaccination on Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 8]. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMc2106757. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2106757
  4. Thompson MG, Stenehjem E, Grannis S, et al. Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines in Ambulatory and Inpatient Care Settings [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 8]. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMoa2110362. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2110362
  5. Bar-On YM, Goldberg Y, Mandel M, et al. Protection of BNT162b2 Vaccine Booster against Covid-19 in Israel [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 15]. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMoa2114255. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2114255
  6. Thomas SJ, Moreira ED Jr, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine through 6 Months [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 15]. N Engl J Med. 2021;NEJMoa2110345. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2110345
  7. Falsey AR, Sobieszczyk ME, Hirsch I, et al. Phase 3 Safety and Efficacy of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Covid-19 Vaccine [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 29]. N Engl J Med. 2021;10.1056/NEJMoa2105290. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2105290
  8. Pilishvili T, Gierke R, Fleming-Dutra KE, et al. Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 22]. N Engl J Med. 2021;10.1056/NEJMoa2106599. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2106599
  9. Shroff RT, Chalasani P, Wei R, et al. Immune responses to two and three doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in adults with solid tumors [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 30]. Nat Med. 2021;10.1038/s41591-021-01542-z. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01542-z
  10. Azamgarhi T, Hodgkinson M, Shah A, et al. BNT162b2 vaccine uptake and effectiveness in UK healthcare workers - a single centre cohort study. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):3698. Published 2021 Jun 17. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23927-x
  11. Liu J, Liu Y, Xia H, et al. BNT162b2-elicited neutralization of B.1.617 and other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Nature. 2021;596(7871):273-275. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03693-y
  12. Agrawal U, Katikireddi SV, McCowan C, et al. COVID-19 hospital admissions and deaths after BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccinations in 2·57 million people in Scotland (EAVE II): a prospective cohort study [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 29]. Lancet Respir Med. 2021;S2213-2600(21)00380-5. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00380-5
  13. Burki T. Booster shots for COVID-19-the debate continues. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(10):1359-1360. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00574-0
  14. Frey S, Connolly CM, Chiang TP, Teles M, Alejo JL, Boyarsky BJ, Christopher-Stine L, Werbel WA, Segev DL, Paik JJ. Antibody kinetics in patients with rheumatic diseases after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. The Lancet Rheumatology. 2021 Sep 28.
  15. Fazel M, Puntis S, White SR, Townsend A, Mansfield KL, Viner R, Herring J, Pollard AJ, Freeman D. Willingness of children and adolescents to have a COVID-19 vaccination: Results of a large whole schools survey in England. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Sep 27:101144.
  16. Furlow B. Immunocompromised patients in the USA and UK should receive third dose of COVID-19 vaccine. The Lancet Rheumatology. 2021 Sep 27.
  17. Appelman B, van der Straten K, Lavell AHA, et al. Time since SARS-CoV-2 infection and humoral immune response following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 24]. EBioMedicine. 2021;72:103589. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103589
  18. Haas EJ, McLaughlin JM, Khan F, et al. Infections, hospitalisations, and deaths averted via a nationwide vaccination campaign using the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in Israel: a retrospective surveillance study [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 22]. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;S1473-3099(21)00566-1. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00566-1
  19. Naaber P, Tserel L, Kangro K, et al. Dynamics of antibody response to BNT162b2 vaccine after six months: a longitudinal prospective study [published online ahead of print, 2021 Sep 6]. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2021;100208. doi:10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100208

Less recent publications on Vaccination

  1. Tang CY, et al. Reinfection with two genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 viruses within 19 days. J Med Virol. 2021 Jun 25. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27154. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34170528.
  2. Suhandynata RT, et al SARS-CoV-2 Serology Status Detected by Commercialized Platforms Distinguishes Previous Infection and Vaccination Adaptive Immune Responses. J Appl Lab Med. 2021 Jun 25:jfab080. doi: 10.1093/jalm/jfab080. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34170314.
  3. Cari L, et al. Blood clots and bleeding events following BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine: An analysis of European data. J Autoimmun. 2021 Jun 23;122:102685. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102685. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34174723.
  4. Mazzola A, et al. Poor Antibody Response after Two Doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in Transplant Recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 24:ciab580. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab580. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34166499.
  5. Meng B et al. Recurrent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 spike deletion H69/V70 and its role in the Alpha variant B.1.1.7. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 8:109292. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109292. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34166617; PMCID: PMC8185188.
  6. Tscherne A, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of the COVID-19 candidate vector vaccine MVA-SARS-2-S in preclinical vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jul 13;118(28):e2026207118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2026207118. PMID: 34162739.
  7. Salvagno GL, et al. Monitoring of the immunogenic response to Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in healthcare workers with Snibe SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2021 Jun 23. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2021-0687. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34162025.
  8. Tré-Hardy M, et al. Waning antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 naïve vaccinees: results of a three-month interim analysis of ongoing immunogenicity and efficacy surveillance of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in healthcare workers. J Infect. 2021 Jun 20:S0163-4453(21)00314-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.06.017. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34161817; PMCID: PMC8214908.
  9. Dimeglio C, et al J. Strong SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody response of previously-infected healthcare workers given one dose of mRNA vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 22:ciab573. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab573. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34157078.
  10. Frenck RW Jr, Klein NP, Kitchin N, Gurtman A, Absalon J, Lockhart S, Perez JL, Walter EB, Senders S, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Ma H, Xu X, Koury K, Kalina WV, Cooper D, Jennings T, Brandon DM, Thomas SJ, Türeci Ö, Tresnan DB, Mather S, Dormitzer PR, Şahin U, Jansen KU, Gruber WC; C4591001 Clinical Trial Group. Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2107456. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34043894.
  11. McGonagle D, De Marco G, Bridgewood C. Mechanisms of Immunothrombosis in Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) Compared to Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection. J Autoimmun. 2021 May 19;121:102662. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102662. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34051613.
  12. Callaway E. Mix-and-match COVID vaccines trigger potent immune response. Nature. 2021 May;593(7860):491. doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-01359-3. PMID: 34012131.
  13. Wang R, Chen J, Gao K, Wei GW. Vaccine-escape and fast-growing mutations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, Spain, India, and other COVID-19-devastated countries. Genomics. 2021 May 15;113(4):2158-2170. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.006. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34004284; PMCID: PMC8123493.
  14. Shinde V, Bhikha S, Hoosain Z, Archary M, Bhorat Q, Fairlie L, Lalloo U, Masilela MSL, Moodley D, Hanley S, Fouche L, Louw C, Tameris M, Singh N, Goga A, Dheda K, Grobbelaar C, Kruger G, Carrim-Ganey N, Baillie V, de Oliveira T, Lombard Koen A, Lombaard JJ, Mngqibisa R, Bhorat AE, Benadé G, Lalloo N, Pitsi A, Vollgraaff PL, Luabeya A, Esmail A, Petrick FG, Oommen-Jose A, Foulkes S, Ahmed K, Thombrayil A, Fries L, Cloney-Clark S, Zhu M, Bennett C, Albert G, Faust E, Plested JS, Robertson A, Neal S, Cho I, Glenn GM, Dubovsky F, Madhi SA; 2019nCoV-501 Study Group. Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 20;384(20):1899-1909. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2103055. Epub 2021 May 5. PMID: 33951374; PMCID: PMC8091623.
  15. Neuzil KM. Interplay between Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Pandemic Control. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 20;384(20):1952-1954. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2103931. Epub 2021 May 5. PMID: 33951359.
  16. Abu-Raddad LJ, Chemaitelly H, Butt AA; National Study Group for COVID-19 Vaccination. Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 5:NEJMc2104974. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2104974. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33951357; PMCID: PMC8117967.
  17. Goldfarb JL, Kreps S, Brownstein JS, Kriner DL. Beyond the First Dose - Covid-19 Vaccine Follow-through and Continued Protective Measures. N Engl J Med. 2021 Apr 28. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2104527. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33909962.
  18. Blumberg D, Sridhar A, Lakshminrusimha S, Higgins RD, Saade G. COVID-19 Vaccine Considerations during Pregnancy and Lactation. Am J Perinatol. 2021 May;38(6):523-528. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1726390. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33932943.
  19. Karnam A, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J. Vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT): Consider IVIG batch in the treatment. J Thromb Haemost. 2021 May 1. doi: 10.1111/jth.15361. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33931935.
  20. Reynolds CJ, Pade C, Gibbons JM, Butler DK, Otter AD, Menacho K, Fontana M, Smit A, Sackville-West JE, Cutino-Moguel T, Maini MK, Chain B, Noursadeghi M; UK COVIDsortium Immune Correlates Network, Brooks T, Semper A, Manisty C, Treibel TA, Moon JC; UK COVIDsortium Investigators, Valdes AM, McKnight Á, Altmann DM, Boyton R. Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose. Science. 2021 Apr 30:eabh1282. doi: 10.1126/science.abh1282. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33931567.
  21. See I, Su JR, Lale A, Woo EJ, Guh AY, Shimabukuro TT, Streiff MB, Rao AK, Wheeler AP, Beavers SF, Durbin AP, Edwards K, Miller E, Harrington TA, Mba-Jonas A, Nair N, Nguyen DT, Talaat KR, Urrutia VC, Walker SC, Creech CB, Clark TA, DeStefano F, Broder KR. US Case Reports of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia After Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination, March 2 to April 21, 2021. JAMA. 2021 Apr 30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.7517. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33929487.
  22. Garcia-Beltran WF, Lam EC, St Denis K, Nitido AD, Garcia ZH, Hauser BM, Feldman J, Pavlovic MN, Gregory DJ, Poznansky MC, Sigal A, Schmidt AG, Iafrate AJ, Naranbhai V, Balazs AB. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants escape neutralization by vaccine-induced humoral immunity. Cell. 2021 Apr 29;184(9):2523. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.006. Erratum for: Cell. 2021 Apr 29;184(9):2372-2383.e9. PMID: 33930298; PMCID: PMC8082941.
  23. Turk VE. Anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: Approach to allergy investigation. Clin Immunol. 2021 Apr 28:108748. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2021.108748. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932618.
  24. Kansakar S, Dumre SP, Raut A, Huy NT. From lockdown to vaccines: challenges and response in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Apr 28:S2213-2600(21)00208-3. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00208-3. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932347.
  25. Oliu-Barton M, Pradelski BSR, Aghion P, Artus P, Kickbusch I, Lazarus JV, Sridhar D, Vanderslott S. SARS-CoV-2 elimination, not mitigation, creates best outcomes for health, the economy, and civil liberties. Lancet. 2021 Apr 28:S0140-6736(21)00978-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00978-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932328.
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