Advancing excellence in laboratory medicine for better healthcare worldwide

8. Vaccination: Considerations for the Clinical Laboratory

Disclaimer: This collection of resources on this webpage reflects a rapidly changing situation and due to the need for quick answers during the COVID-19 pandemic, we acknowledge that most fast-tracked publications are based on observations, often on a small number of cases, which would be considered as preliminary evidence. The IFCC Task Force has not critically appraised all resources cited here for scientific validity but tried to present information that is believed to help laboratory professionals in formulating their local policies in a more informed manner. The interim advice or conclusions presented here may change as more information is gathered.

 

Since the beginning of 2021, several SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations have been approved by key regulatory bodies and distributed globally. The clinical laboratory will likely play a role in the monitoring of immunity post-vaccination as testing practices and methodologies evolve and improve.  Please find a curated list of key publications regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the implications for laboratory testing.

 

  1. Tang CY, et al. Reinfection with two genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 viruses within 19 days. J Med Virol. 2021 Jun 25. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27154. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34170528.
  2. Suhandynata RT, et al SARS-CoV-2 Serology Status Detected by Commercialized Platforms Distinguishes Previous Infection and Vaccination Adaptive Immune Responses. J Appl Lab Med. 2021 Jun 25:jfab080. doi: 10.1093/jalm/jfab080. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34170314.
  3. Cari L, et al. Blood clots and bleeding events following BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine: An analysis of European data. J Autoimmun. 2021 Jun 23;122:102685. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102685. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34174723.
  4. Mazzola A, et al. Poor Antibody Response after Two Doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in Transplant Recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 24:ciab580. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab580. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34166499.
  5. Meng B et al. Recurrent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 spike deletion H69/V70 and its role in the Alpha variant B.1.1.7. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 8:109292. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109292. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34166617; PMCID: PMC8185188.
  6. Tscherne A, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of the COVID-19 candidate vector vaccine MVA-SARS-2-S in preclinical vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jul 13;118(28):e2026207118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2026207118. PMID: 34162739.
  7. Salvagno GL, et al. Monitoring of the immunogenic response to Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in healthcare workers with Snibe SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2021 Jun 23. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2021-0687. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34162025.
  8. Tré-Hardy M, et al. Waning antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 naïve vaccinees: results of a three-month interim analysis of ongoing immunogenicity and efficacy surveillance of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in healthcare workers. J Infect. 2021 Jun 20:S0163-4453(21)00314-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.06.017. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34161817; PMCID: PMC8214908.
  9. Dimeglio C, et al J. Strong SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody response of previously-infected healthcare workers given one dose of mRNA vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 22:ciab573. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab573. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34157078.
  10. Frenck RW Jr, Klein NP, Kitchin N, Gurtman A, Absalon J, Lockhart S, Perez JL, Walter EB, Senders S, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Ma H, Xu X, Koury K, Kalina WV, Cooper D, Jennings T, Brandon DM, Thomas SJ, Türeci Ö, Tresnan DB, Mather S, Dormitzer PR, Şahin U, Jansen KU, Gruber WC; C4591001 Clinical Trial Group. Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2107456. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34043894.
  11. McGonagle D, De Marco G, Bridgewood C. Mechanisms of Immunothrombosis in Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) Compared to Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection. J Autoimmun. 2021 May 19;121:102662. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102662. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34051613.
  12. Callaway E. Mix-and-match COVID vaccines trigger potent immune response. Nature. 2021 May;593(7860):491. doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-01359-3. PMID: 34012131.
  13. Wang R, Chen J, Gao K, Wei GW. Vaccine-escape and fast-growing mutations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, Spain, India, and other COVID-19-devastated countries. Genomics. 2021 May 15;113(4):2158-2170. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.006. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34004284; PMCID: PMC8123493.
  14. Shinde V, Bhikha S, Hoosain Z, Archary M, Bhorat Q, Fairlie L, Lalloo U, Masilela MSL, Moodley D, Hanley S, Fouche L, Louw C, Tameris M, Singh N, Goga A, Dheda K, Grobbelaar C, Kruger G, Carrim-Ganey N, Baillie V, de Oliveira T, Lombard Koen A, Lombaard JJ, Mngqibisa R, Bhorat AE, Benadé G, Lalloo N, Pitsi A, Vollgraaff PL, Luabeya A, Esmail A, Petrick FG, Oommen-Jose A, Foulkes S, Ahmed K, Thombrayil A, Fries L, Cloney-Clark S, Zhu M, Bennett C, Albert G, Faust E, Plested JS, Robertson A, Neal S, Cho I, Glenn GM, Dubovsky F, Madhi SA; 2019nCoV-501 Study Group. Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 20;384(20):1899-1909. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2103055. Epub 2021 May 5. PMID: 33951374; PMCID: PMC8091623.
  15. Neuzil KM. Interplay between Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Pandemic Control. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 20;384(20):1952-1954. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2103931. Epub 2021 May 5. PMID: 33951359.
  16. Abu-Raddad LJ, Chemaitelly H, Butt AA; National Study Group for COVID-19 Vaccination. Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 5:NEJMc2104974. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2104974. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33951357; PMCID: PMC8117967.
  17. Goldfarb JL, Kreps S, Brownstein JS, Kriner DL. Beyond the First Dose - Covid-19 Vaccine Follow-through and Continued Protective Measures. N Engl J Med. 2021 Apr 28. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2104527. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33909962.
  18. Blumberg D, Sridhar A, Lakshminrusimha S, Higgins RD, Saade G. COVID-19 Vaccine Considerations during Pregnancy and Lactation. Am J Perinatol. 2021 May;38(6):523-528. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1726390. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33932943.
  19. Karnam A, Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Bayry J. Vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT): Consider IVIG batch in the treatment. J Thromb Haemost. 2021 May 1. doi: 10.1111/jth.15361. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33931935.
  20. Reynolds CJ, Pade C, Gibbons JM, Butler DK, Otter AD, Menacho K, Fontana M, Smit A, Sackville-West JE, Cutino-Moguel T, Maini MK, Chain B, Noursadeghi M; UK COVIDsortium Immune Correlates Network, Brooks T, Semper A, Manisty C, Treibel TA, Moon JC; UK COVIDsortium Investigators, Valdes AM, McKnight Á, Altmann DM, Boyton R. Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose. Science. 2021 Apr 30:eabh1282. doi: 10.1126/science.abh1282. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33931567.
  21. See I, Su JR, Lale A, Woo EJ, Guh AY, Shimabukuro TT, Streiff MB, Rao AK, Wheeler AP, Beavers SF, Durbin AP, Edwards K, Miller E, Harrington TA, Mba-Jonas A, Nair N, Nguyen DT, Talaat KR, Urrutia VC, Walker SC, Creech CB, Clark TA, DeStefano F, Broder KR. US Case Reports of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia After Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination, March 2 to April 21, 2021. JAMA. 2021 Apr 30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.7517. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33929487.
  22. Garcia-Beltran WF, Lam EC, St Denis K, Nitido AD, Garcia ZH, Hauser BM, Feldman J, Pavlovic MN, Gregory DJ, Poznansky MC, Sigal A, Schmidt AG, Iafrate AJ, Naranbhai V, Balazs AB. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants escape neutralization by vaccine-induced humoral immunity. Cell. 2021 Apr 29;184(9):2523. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.006. Erratum for: Cell. 2021 Apr 29;184(9):2372-2383.e9. PMID: 33930298; PMCID: PMC8082941.
  23. Turk VE. Anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: Approach to allergy investigation. Clin Immunol. 2021 Apr 28:108748. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2021.108748. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932618.
  24. Kansakar S, Dumre SP, Raut A, Huy NT. From lockdown to vaccines: challenges and response in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Apr 28:S2213-2600(21)00208-3. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00208-3. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932347.
  25. Oliu-Barton M, Pradelski BSR, Aghion P, Artus P, Kickbusch I, Lazarus JV, Sridhar D, Vanderslott S. SARS-CoV-2 elimination, not mitigation, creates best outcomes for health, the economy, and civil liberties. Lancet. 2021 Apr 28:S0140-6736(21)00978-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00978-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33932328.
  26. Menni C, Klaser K, May A, Polidori L, Capdevila J, Louca P, Sudre CH, Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Merino J, Hu C, Selvachandran S, Antonelli M, Murray B, Canas LS, Molteni E, Graham MS, Modat M, Joshi AD, Mangino M, Hammers A, Goodman AL, Chan AT, Wolf J, Steves CJ, Valdes AM, Ourselin S, Spector TD. Vaccine side-effects and SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK: a prospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27:S1473-3099(21)00224-3. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00224-3. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33930320; PMCID: PMC8078878.
  27. Williams SR, Driscoll AJ, LeBuhn HM, Chen WH, Neuzil KM, Ortiz JR. National routine adult immunisation programmes among World Health Organization Member States: an assessment of health systems to deploy COVID-19 vaccines. Euro Surveill. 2021 Apr;26(17). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.17.2001195. PMID: 33928899.
  28. Goepfert PA, Fu B, Chabanon AL, Bonaparte MI, Davis MG, Essink BJ, Frank I, Haney O, Janosczyk H, Keefer MC, Koutsoukos M, Kimmel MA, Masotti R, Savarino SJ, Schuerman L, Schwartz H, Sher LD, Smith J, Tavares-Da-Silva F, Gurunathan S, DiazGranados CA, de Bruyn G. Safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine formulations in healthy adults: interim results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2, dose-ranging study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 19:S1473-3099(21)00147-X. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00147-X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33887209; PMCID: PMC8055206.
  29. Fabiani M, Ramigni M, Gobbetto V, Mateo-Urdiales A, Pezzotti P, Piovesan C. Effectiveness of the Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccine in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers, Treviso province, Veneto region, Italy, 27 December 2020 to 24 March 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021 Apr;26(17). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.17.2100420. PMID: 33928898.

Less recent publications

  1. Barrett JR, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Dold C, Ewer KJ, Folegatti PM, Gilbride C, Halkerston R, Hill J, Jenkin D, Stockdale L, Verheul MK, Aley PK, Angus B, Bellamy D, Berrie E, Bibi S, Bittaye M, Carroll MW, Cavell B, Clutterbuck EA, Edwards N, Flaxman A, Fuskova M, Gorringe A, Hallis B, Kerridge S, Lawrie AM, Linder A, Liu X, Madhavan M, Makinson R, Mellors J, Minassian A, Moore M, Mujadidi Y, Plested E, Poulton I, Ramasamy MN, Robinson H, Rollier CS, Song R, Snape MD, Tarrant R, Taylor S, Thomas KM, Voysey M, Watson MEE, Wright D, Douglas AD, Green CM, Hill AVS, Lambe T, Gilbert S, Pollard AJ; Oxford COVID Vaccine Trial Group. Phase 1/2 trial of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with a booster dose induces multifunctional antibody responses. Nat Med. 2020 Dec 17. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-01179-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33335322.
  2. Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, Perez JL, Pérez Marc G, Moreira ED, Zerbini C, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Roychoudhury S, Koury K, Li P, Kalina WV, Cooper D, Frenck RW Jr, Hammitt LL, Türeci Ö, Nell H, Schaefer A, Ünal S, Tresnan DB, Mather S, Dormitzer PR, Şahin U, Jansen KU, Gruber WC; C4591001 Clinical Trial Group. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 31;383(27):2603-2615. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2034577. Epub 2020 Dec 10. PMID: 33301246; PMCID: PMC7745181.
  3. Walsh EE, Frenck RW Jr, Falsey AR, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, Neuzil K, Mulligan MJ, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Li P, Koury K, Kalina W, Cooper D, Fontes-Garfias C, Shi PY, Türeci Ö, Tompkins KR, Lyke KE, Raabe V, Dormitzer PR, Jansen KU, Şahin U, Gruber WC. Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2439-2450. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2027906. Epub 2020 Oct 14. PMID: 33053279; PMCID: PMC7583697.
  4. Widge AT, Rouphael NG, Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Roberts PC, Makhene M, Chappell JD, Denison MR, Stevens LJ, Pruijssers AJ, McDermott AB, Flach B, Lin BC, Doria-Rose NA, O'Dell S, Schmidt SD, Neuzil KM, Bennett H, Leav B, Makowski M, Albert J, Cross K, Edara VV, Floyd K, Suthar MS, Buchanan W, Luke CJ, Ledgerwood JE, Mascola JR, Graham BS, Beigel JH; mRNA-1273 Study Group. Durability of Responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 7;384(1):80-82. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2032195. Epub 2020 Dec 3. PMID: 33270381; PMCID: PMC7727324.
  5. Lederer K, Castaño D, Gómez Atria D, Oguin TH 3rd, Wang S, Manzoni TB, Muramatsu H, Hogan MJ, Amanat F, Cherubin P, Lundgreen KA, Tam YK, Fan SHY, Eisenlohr LC, Maillard I, Weissman D, Bates P, Krammer F, Sempowski GD, Pardi N, Locci M. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines Foster Potent Antigen-Specific Germinal Center Responses Associated with Neutralizing Antibody Generation. Immunity. 2020 Dec 15;53(6):1281-1295.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.009. Epub 2020 Nov 21. PMID: 33296685; PMCID: PMC7680029.
  6. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, Diemert D, Spector SA, Rouphael N, Creech CB, McGettigan J, Kehtan S, Segall N, Solis J, Brosz A, Fierro C, Schwartz H, Neuzil K, Corey L, Gilbert P, Janes H, Follmann D, Marovich M, Mascola J, Polakowski L, Ledgerwood J, Graham BS, Bennett H, Pajon R, Knightly C, Leav B, Deng W, Zhou H, Han S, Ivarsson M, Miller J, Zaks T; COVE Study Group. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 30:NEJMoa2035389. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33378609; PMCID: PMC7787219.
  7. Muik A, Wallisch AK, Sänger B, Swanson KA, Mühl J, Chen W, Cai H, Maurus D, Sarkar R, Türeci Ö, Dormitzer PR, Şahin U. Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 pseudovirus by BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited human sera. Science. 2021 Jan 29:eabg6105. doi: 10.1126/science.abg6105. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33514629.
  8. Lippi, et al. Cinetica e caratteristiche biologiche della risposta umorale all’infezione da SARS-CoV-2: implicazioni vaccinali. Biochimica Clinica. Jan 2021. Doi: 19186/BC_2021.001
  9. Widge AT, Rouphael NG, Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Roberts PC, Makhene M, Chappell JD, Denison MR, Stevens LJ, Pruijssers AJ, McDermott AB, Flach B, Lin BC, Doria-Rose NA, O'Dell S, Schmidt SD, Neuzil KM, Bennett H, Leav B, Makowski M, Albert J, Cross K, Edara VV, Floyd K, Suthar MS, Buchanan W, Luke CJ, Ledgerwood JE, Mascola JR, Graham BS, Beigel JH; mRNA-1273 Study Group. Durability of Responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 7;384(1):80-82. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2032195. Epub 2020 Dec 3. PMID: 33270381; PMCID: PMC7727324.
  10. Zhu FC, Li YH, Guan XH, Hou LH, Wang WJ, Li JX, Wu SP, Wang BS, Wang Z, Wang L, Jia SY, Jiang HD, Wang L, Jiang T, Hu Y, Gou JB, Xu SB, Xu JJ, Wang XW, Wang W, Chen W. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. Lancet. 2020 Jun 13;395(10240):1845-1854. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3. Epub 2020 May 22. PMID: 32450106; PMCID: PMC7255193.
  11. Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Zhang H, Xie Z, Li X, Peng C, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Yang Y, Chen W, Gao X, You W, Wang X, Wang Z, Shi Z, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhang L, Huang L, Wang Q, Lu J, Yang Y, Guo J, Zhou W, Wan X, Wu C, Wang W, Huang S, Du J, Meng Z, Pan A, Yuan Z, Shen S, Guo W, Yang X. Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes: Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA. 2020 Sep 8;324(10):951-960. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.15543. PMID: 32789505; PMCID: PMC7426884.
  12. Pecetta S, Pizza M, Sala C, Andreano E, Pileri P, Troisi M, Pantano E, Manganaro N, Rappuoli R. Antibodies, epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 immunology. Cell Death Differ. 2021 Feb;28(2):821-824. doi: 10.1038/s41418-020-00711-w. Epub 2021 Jan 26. PMID: 33500559; PMCID: PMC7835663.
  13. Schrading WA, Trent SA, Paxton JH, Rodriguez RM, Swanson MB, Mohr NM, Talan DA; Project COVERED Emergency Department Network. Vaccination Rates and Acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Among US Emergency Department Health Care Personnel. Acad Emerg Med. 2021 Feb 19. doi: 10.1111/acem.14236. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33608937.
  14. Braun P, Braun J, Woodcock BG. COVID-19: Predictions for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on the course of the pandemic and critical occupancy of intensive-care facilities in Germany. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Feb 19. doi: 10.5414/CP203988. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33605876.
  15. Benjamin-Chung J, Reingold A. Measuring the Success of the US COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign-It's Time to Invest in and Strengthen Immunization Information Systems. Am J Public Health. 2021 Feb 18:e1-e3. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306177. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33600253.
  16. Pawelec G, McElhaney J. Unanticipated efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in older adults. Immun Ageing. 2021 Feb 17;18(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s12979-021-00219-y. PMID: 33596958; PMCID: PMC7886644.
  17. Jecker NS, Wightman AG, Diekema DS. Vaccine ethics: an ethical framework for global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. J Med Ethics. 2021 Feb 16:medethics-2020-107036. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-107036. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33593876; PMCID: PMC7887861.
  18. Steuwer B, Jamrozik E, Eyal N. Prioritizing between second-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines through low-dosage challenge studies. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 13:S1201-9712(21)00124-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.02.038. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33592338; PMCID: PMC7881292.
  19. Fix OK, Blumberg EA, Chang KM, Chu J, Chung RT, Goacher EK, Hameed B, Kaul DR, Kulik LM, Kwok RM, McGuire BM, Mulligan DC, Price JC, Reau NS, Reddy KR, Reynolds A, Rosen HR, Russo MW, Schilsky ML, Verna EC, Ward JW, Fontana RJ; AASLD COVID-19 Vaccine Working Group. AASLD Expert Panel Consensus Statement: Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19 Infection in Patients with Liver Disease. Hepatology. 2021 Feb 12. doi: 10.1002/hep.31751. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33577086.
  20. Freedman MS, Ault K, Bernstein H. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United States, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Feb 12;70(6):193-196. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7006a2. PMID: 33571173.
  21. Wodi AP, Ault K, Hunter P, McNally V, Szilagyi PG, Bernstein H. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger - United States, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Feb 12;70(6):189-192. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7006a1. PMID: 33571172.
  22. Painter EM, Ussery EN, Patel A, Hughes MM, Zell ER, Moulia DL, Scharf LG, Lynch M, Ritchey MD, Toblin RL, Murthy BP, Harris LQ, Wasley A, Rose DA, Cohn A, Messonnier NE. Demographic Characteristics of Persons Vaccinated During the First Month of the COVID-19 Vaccination Program - United States, December 14, 2020-January 14, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Feb 5;70(5):174-177. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7005e1. PMID: 33539333; PMCID: PMC7861480.
  23. Livingston EH. Necessity of 2 Doses of the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines. JAMA. 2021 Feb 3. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.1375. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33533893.
  24. CDC COVID-19 Response Team; Food and Drug Administration. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, December 21, 2020-January 10, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jan 29;70(4):125-129. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7004e1. PMID: 33507892; PMCID: PMC7842812.
  25. Townsend MJ, Kyle TK, Stanford FC. COVID-19 Vaccination and Obesity: Optimism and Challenges. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Jan 28. doi: 10.1002/oby.23131. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33506642.
  26. Klein SL, Creisher PS, Burd I. COVID-19 vaccine testing in pregnant females is necessary. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jan 14:147553. doi: 10.1172/JCI147553. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33444286.
  27. Banerji A, Wickner PG, Saff R, Stone CA Jr, Robinson LB, Long AA, Wolfson AR, Williams P, Khan DA, Phillips E, Blumenthal KG. mRNA Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19 Disease and Reported Allergic Reactions: Current Evidence and Suggested Approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 Dec 31:S2213-2198(20)31411-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.12.047. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33388478.
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